Publication at NFM 2022
Andrea Pferscher and Bernhard K. Aichernig: “Stateful Black-Box Fuzzing of Bluetooth Devices Using Automata Learning.”, In Deshmukh, J. V., Havelund, K., Perez, I. (eds.) NASA Formal Methods – 14th International Symposium, NFM 2022, Pasadena, CA, USA, May 24-27, 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 13260, pp. 373–392. Springer (2022).(doi:10.1007/978-3-030-90870-6_28)
Fuzzing (aka fuzz testing) shows promising results in security testing. The advantage of fuzzing is the relatively simple applicability compared to comprehensive manual security analysis. However, the effectiveness of black-box fuzzing is hard to judge since the internal structure of the system under test is unknown. Hence, in-depth behavior might not be covered by fuzzing. This paper aims at overcoming the limitations of black-box fuzzing. We present a stateful black-box fuzzing technique that uses a behavioral model of the system under test. Instead of manually creating the model, we apply active automata learning to automatically infer the model. Our framework generates a test suite for fuzzing that includes valid and invalid inputs. The goal is to explore unexpected behavior. For this, we test for conformance between the learned model and the system under test. Additionally, we analyze behavioral differences using the learned state information. In a case study, we evaluate implementations of the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol on physical devices. The results reveal security and dependability issues in the tested devices leading to crashes of four out of six devices.